Philippine Politics and Governance - Ideologies

Ideology is a set of basic social or political beliefs that aspires to explain the world and change it. The word idéologie first appeared during the French Revolution when it was introduced by philosopher Antoine-Louise-Claude, Comte Destutt de Tracy. Idéologie was his term for "science of ideas".

Left-wing ideologies are ideologies that want to abolish the government through violence and lawlessness.

Right-wing ideologies oppose change and look to the past for wisdom.

Liberalism - focuses on the individual, freedom, justice, reason, and tolerance. It emphasizes individual rights, tolerance, and pluralism. The government needs to protect individuals though they acknowledge that the government can also take away individual freedom.

Conservatism - based on the preservation of tradition. Societies are organic meaning that society is a living organism where all members depend on each other. They prefer historically inherited ideas rather than new ones. It means that they prefer ways that were proven to be effective before rather than the abstract and the ideal.

Socialism - calls for communal ownership rather than private ownership. Everyone who contributes to the good in society deserves a share in it. They disagree with capitalists, saying that capitalism enables people with wealth and power to establish dominance in society. The rich have choices which in turn limit the opportunities of the poor. Socialists believe that equality lies in social control of resources to provide prosperity in society.

Capitalism - in contrast with socialism, capitalism calls for private ownership where goods are created in order to generate profit. Capitalism in the 19th century caused the class of industrial workers to be miserable. In the 1970s, capitalism caused rapid increases in economic inequality.

Communism - aims to replace a profit-based economy with public ownership and communal control of the major means of production. Output in communism is given according to need while output in socialism is given according to ability or contributions. "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need."

Fascism - extreme militaristic nationalism. They believe in hierarchy and that the elite should rule. Fascism is anti-liberal, anti-elections, violent, and has expansionist nationalist agenda.

Nationalism - Nation should be the central principle of a political organization

Democracy - originated from Greece and means "ruled by the many" where society is based on equal opportunity rather than social ranking. The people choose their leaders through elections.

Totalitarianism - permits no individual freedom. They believe that all individuals belong to the State. It is an oppressive single-party government. It establishes its rule through terrorism, brutality, and ideological manipulation.

Anarchism - believes that the government is harmful and unnecessary. It is derived from the Greek word "anarchos" meaning without authority. They deny manmade laws, think of property as tyranny. Their denial of the constitution leads not to lawlessness but real justice in the free development of humans. Humans are inherently good and without government, all humans are inclined to practice mutual aid.

Feminism - political equality for the sexes. In the Age of Enlightenment, Mary Wollstonecraft challenged the idea that women exist only to please men and said that men and women should be given equal opportunities in education, work, and politics. Women are as rational as men.

Religious fundamentalism - centered around the absolute authority of a religious leader, prophet, or god. Religion dictates their daily lives and they force society into their belief system. It is often a militaristic ideology that uses violence to reach its goals.

Environmentalism - centered around the belief that nature is the most important focus.

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