Philippine Politics and Governance - Concepts of Politics and Governance

Politics determines who shall occupy roles of leadership and how powers of government should be exercised. It is a power relationship between individuals and groups.

The State is a political organization of society, the institutions of a government. It consists of the agreement of the individuals where disputes are settled in the form of laws.

Elements of a State

  • People - a community which composes a human political institution

  • Territory - land, sea-territorial waters, continental shelf, mountains, etc., and air space above the territory

  • Sovereignty - supreme power of the State over its people and territory

  • Government - the element of the State which makes, implements, and enforces the laws of the State


  • “The traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised” – Kaufman et al

  • “The exercise of economic, political, and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs at all levels." - UNDP

  • "... citizens are rightly concerned with a government’s responsiveness to their needs and protection of their rights." - The USAID, Office of Democracy & Governance 8

  • "refers to how any organization, including a nation, is run." - UNDP

  • "promoting fairness, transparency, and accountability" World Bank

Governance is what a government does. Governance is the act of governing while the government is the entity that exercises authority.

Indicators of Good Governance

  • Participation

  • Rule of Law

  • Effectiveness

  • Efficiency

  • Transparency

  • Responsiveness

  • Equity

  • Inclusiveness

  • Consensus Oriented

  • Accountability

Forms of Accountability

  • Political Accountability - the accountability of the government, civil servants, and politicians to the public and to legislative bodies such as Congress or Parliament.

  • Hierarchical Accountability - delegation of authority from superior to subordinate, accountability of various agencies and personnel in relation to their program objectives

  • Managerial Accountability - accountability must describe the relationship between the manager and the direct report


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