Oral Communication

Verbal Communication - use of oral or written modes to communicate. Written communication is comprised of written symbols while oral communication is giving information through the spoken word.


  • volume - loudness of our voice when we speak

  • pitch - highness or lowness of the speaker's voice

  • rate - speed in speaking. Proper pacing means that the speaker is confident and masters their topic.

  • pauses - brief silences in speech. These allow the speaker to breathe and let the information sink into the audience.

  • articulation - producing sounds accurately so that the audience knows what words you are saying

  • pronunciation - producing sounds according to accepted standards of language


Voice Production - The Speech Process


  • Respiration and breathing control - Proper respiration and breathing control affect our speech delivery.

  • Phonation/production of initial sound - When you release air and causes vocal cords to vibrate. You produce a thin sound when you breathe out.

  • Modulation - Amplification of phonation through the use of the larynx, mouth, and other air passages.

  • Articulation - Sounds can be shaped into specific aural symbols.



Nonverbal Communication - The use of body language and visual cues to communicate with the audience. This includes physical appearance, posture, gestures, and more.


  • physical appearance - clothing and first impressions that enhance our ethos as speakers

  • eye contact - visual contact with the audience

  • facial expression - movement of our eyes, eyebrows, and mouth

  • posture - the way a speaker carries his or her body to an audience

  • gestures - movements that express meaning or emotion

  • proxemics - space maintained between the speaker and the audience. Pacing means that the speaker wants to establish rapport with the audience.


Functions of Communication

  1. Control - Communication allows people to be made aware of certain behaviors, rules, and laws that they are expected to follow in an organization. For example, I can tell my brother it's his turn to wash dishes because that was our agreement. I am making him aware of something I expect him to do and this way, I assert control.

  2. Social interaction - We interact with people every day, be it online or at home. Communication is essential in any kind of setting such as online classes or simply stating that you are hungry so that you will be given food.

  3. Motivation - When someone compliments our work, we are motivated to do better at work. When people approve of what you are doing, you are likewise motivated to do more of it.

  4. Emotional expression - We communicate our sentiments with people we trust, to vent. Communication is often used to express our emotions about an event and other things.

  5. Information dissemination - Communication allows for people to be informed. The information doesn't exist if no one receives it or tells it. Communication needs to be present for information to exist.


Elements of Communication

  • sender - the source of information

  • message - thoughts, ideas, and information conveyed in words or actions

  • encoding - converting the message into words

  • channel - the means through which the message is sent

  • receiver - receiver or decoder of the message

  • decoding - interpretation of the message sent

  • feedback - reaction, the response of the receiver

  • context - the situation within which something exists or happens to provide resources so it may be properly interpreted.

  • barrier - that which limits or reduces effective communication


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