Earth Science - What Makes Earth Unique
Earth's atmosphere has a gaseous layer that regulates the planet's surface temperature. Its cooling mechanisms protect living organisms
The four subsystems of the earth are the geosphere hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere.
Layers of the Atmosphere
troposphere - 14.5 km
stratosphere - good ozone 50 km
mesosphere - 85 km (space)
thermosphere - 600 km (space)
exosphere - 10,000 km (satellites)
The geosphere is composed of the:
The climate system is made up of:
gases that trap heat like water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone
soil and vegetation
Minerals are naturally occuring, solid.
Physical Properties of Minerals
color - the result of the reflection of visible light, not enough to identify minerals because may be same-ish color but differ in chemical structure
luster - ability to reflect light from the surface
polished metals reflect light
nonmetallic luster may be glassy, waxy, pearly, brilliant
streak - the color of a mineral in powdered form maybe different from its solid form
metallic minerals have dark streaks
nonmetallic generally light
cleavage - split along a weak plane forming a flat surface
fracture - the capacity of mineral to break along curved surfaces
density - compactness of a sample of matter m/v. Every metal has a unique density.
hardness - resist abrasion or scratching. Use Mohs scale to arrange minerals from softest to hardest talc softest, diamond hardest.
specific gravity - mineral's weight to an equal volume of water
reaction with acids - minerals that contain co32
fluorescence - glow when bombarded with ultraviolet light. Minerals may not glow under ordinary light, minerals are selective of light that causes it to glow.
phosphorescence - siga gihapon bisag wala nay light.