Earth Science - Rocks

Exogenous - natural processes on the surface of the earth


  • elements

  • sulfides - metal + sulfur

  • halides - nonmetal, chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine are their main chemical constituents

  • oxides, hydroxides (inactivate other elements) - metals with oxygen, water, hydroxyl

  • nitrates, carbonates, borates - carbon, nitrogen, boron

  • sulfates - one or more metals + sulfate compound

  • chromates, molybdates, tungstates - brightly colored, brittle, dense

  • phosphates, arsenates, vanadates - blue metal + phosphates

  • silicates - different amounts of oxygen and silicon


igneous rocks - formed from the solidification of molten rock material, the magma is crystallized. Cooling is one of the most important factors that control the crystal size and texture of the rock.

  • intrusive igneous rocks are formed inside a volcano - large crystals

  • extrusive igneous rocks are formed outside volcano - small crystals



sedimentary rocks - These are rocks that formed through the accumulation, compaction, and cementation of sediments. They generally form at the surface or near-surface conditions.


diagenesis - compaction, cementation, recrystallization, chemical changes


  • clastic sedimentary rocks - made from preexisting rocks

  • nonclastic sedimentary rocks- derived from sediments that precipitated from concentrated solutions (e.g. seawater) or from the accumulation of biologic or organic material (e.g. shells, plant material).

They are further classified based on chemical composition.

  • biological - dead organisms

  • chemical - chemical precipitation


metamorphic rocks - altered, changed, transformed because of pressure, blends into its environment to balance with the new conditions.


  • neomorphism - different elements from the same chemical elements

  • metasomatism - adds or loses new minerals, just a lil bit left


  • contact metamorphism - local area adjacent to large intrusions tapos nagkatouch ng hot fluid

  • regional metamorphism - major igneous intrusions extreme pressure, deep burial

  • foliated metamorphic rocks - banding, platey elongated minerals which are called foliations

  • non-foliated metamorphic rocks - do not have layered appearance


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