Earth Science - Rocks
Exogenous - natural processes on the surface of the earth
sulfides - metal + sulfur
halides - nonmetal, chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine are their main chemical constituents
oxides, hydroxides (inactivate other elements) - metals with oxygen, water, hydroxyl
nitrates, carbonates, borates - carbon, nitrogen, boron
sulfates - one or more metals + sulfate compound
chromates, molybdates, tungstates - brightly colored, brittle, dense
phosphates, arsenates, vanadates - blue metal + phosphates
silicates - different amounts of oxygen and silicon
igneous rocks - formed from the solidification of molten rock material, the magma is crystallized. Cooling is one of the most important factors that control the crystal size and texture of the rock.
intrusive igneous rocks are formed inside a volcano - large crystals
extrusive igneous rocks are formed outside volcano - small crystals
sedimentary rocks - These are rocks that formed through the accumulation, compaction, and cementation of sediments. They generally form at the surface or near-surface conditions.
diagenesis - compaction, cementation, recrystallization, chemical changes
clastic sedimentary rocks - made from preexisting rocks
nonclastic sedimentary rocks- derived from sediments that precipitated from concentrated solutions (e.g. seawater) or from the accumulation of biologic or organic material (e.g. shells, plant material).
They are further classified based on chemical composition.
biological - dead organisms
chemical - chemical precipitation
metamorphic rocks - altered, changed, transformed because of pressure, blends into its environment to balance with the new conditions.
neomorphism - different elements from the same chemical elements
metasomatism - adds or loses new minerals, just a lil bit left
contact metamorphism - local area adjacent to large intrusions tapos nagkatouch ng hot fluid
regional metamorphism - major igneous intrusions extreme pressure, deep burial
foliated metamorphic rocks - banding, platey elongated minerals which are called foliations
non-foliated metamorphic rocks - do not have layered appearance